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Представлена работа на конкурс "Отчизна Дон Кихотов-2012"

Представлена работа на конкурс "Отчизна Дон Кихотов-2012"[1]
Автор проекта-Прохорова Екатерина
Руководитель проекта-Поспелова Татьяна Юрьевна

Project The Birth of Russian Statehood School № 10 Class 10 b Prokhorova Ekaterin The main question of the work: what is the beginning of the Russian state

The main aims of the project: to study and to analyze the most important events in the development of our country and our region

to analyze how the formation of Russian statehood in the north history of the city of Surgut began, to elicit the origin of the name of the city

Content

I. Introduction

II. Kievan Rus and Muscovy
III. Western Siberia
IV. History of the City of Surgut
1.The Foundation
2. Origin of name
3. The Fortress
4. Revolutionary times
5. The Great Patriotic War
6. At the present tim

VI. Conclusion
VII. Quiz
VIII. Bibliography


I. Introduction The process of birth of the state was a lengthy process, given the vast territory of the East European Plain. State, which subsequently led to the birth of Russian statehood, was born mainly in two centers: in the north-west of the center in Novgorod and the Dnieper - Kiev, Chernigov, Yaroslavl. Center for Ancient Rus was Kiev, which was considered the mother of Russian cities.

What is considered to be the beginning? This can be done only symbolically. 

II. Kievan Rus and Muscovy 862 can be considered as the year of the Russian state beginning. It is a vocation in the Rurik Russian rule in the north-western lands. Slavic tribes that lived in these territories, as well as Finno-Baltic eel and were invited to an arbitrator, who would manage and provide guidance to the situation in the region. It's a date. But it was a traditional date. It was celebrated in 1862, even during the reign of Alexander II. There was a monument to the 1000th anniversary of Russia in Novgorod.

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The name of Rus was given to the land of the Eastern Slavs in the ninth century. According to early Russian chronicle, when Oleg the Prophetic sat on the throne of Kiev, he declared: “This will be the mother of the cities of Rus”. Kiev was well placed on the principal waterway between the Gulf of Finland and the Bosphorus. Every year the merchants loaded up their boats with furs, wax, honey, amber and travelled downstream to Constantinople. There is a third great date - an 882 year, when the North and the South were together, when Oleg of East with the other local tribes conquered Kiev and united the north and the south. 882 year was the creation of a unified state. In 988 Prince Vladimir of Kiev proclaimed Christianity as the official religion and the whole population of Kiev was baptized in the waters of the River Dnieper All these dates are significant in the history of Russian statehood. The question is, on what date to stop and what is considered the beginning of the Russian state. Under Yaroslav the Wise, the first written code of Russian laws called Russkaya Prawda was issued. After Yaroslav’s death in 1054 the tendency to disintegration became more evident. By the 13th century the ancient Russian state had fallen apart into many small principalities. In 1240 the Mongols headed by Batu Khan conquered Rus, and its towns and principalities lost their independence.

     The first mention of Moscow appears in the Chronicles for 1147, nearly a century before Mongol-Tatar invasion. In those times Moscow belonged to Yury Dolgoriky,  Prince of Vladimir. It was a small settlement on the banks of the river.

Prince Ivan Kalita (1325) was the first Moscow prince to be granted the right to collect the tribute money from the other Russian principalities. His Grandson, Prince Dmitry Donskoi, was the victor of the battle of Kulikovo over Mongols in 1380. In 1472 Ivan the Great strengthened his position by marrying Sophia Paleologus as his second wife. After the fall of Constantinople a monk

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referred to Moscow as the third Rome: “Two Romes have already fallen but the third remains standing, and the fourth there will not be.” But how did the formation of Russian statehood in the north begin? That's what I'd like to tell you in more details. III. Western Siberia The Siberia, the land beyond the Urals, is almost the size of Europe and larger than the USA. It extends from the Urals in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, from the Arctic Ocean to China and Mongolia. Large areas of the northern and central Urals are virgin forests, mountain streams and waterfalls. The Russians first began advancing across the Urals in the late 16th century. The Siberia’s attraction is in its great wealth of fur, in its gold, diamond, silver, iron, copper and timber resources. Later huge reserves of oil and gas were discovered. Cities with the light on the fate on the banks of the Ob, no many of them have already appeared in the oil era. Surgut is one of those unique cities that were born out of love of man to this place. Let's go on a trip to this city, look deep into its history, reflect on this, try to guess the misty future.

IV. History of the City of Surgut 1. The Foundation Surgut is one of the oldest Siberian cities, based on the mandate of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich, February 19, 1594 by voivod Prince Feodor Boryatinski and writing head Vladimir Onichkov. The city was founded near the castle of Prince Ostyak Bardak . Surgut was "founded by three people," the magistrates, a merchant and a hunter.

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Today, in the central street of the city there is a monument to the founders of the city, which in addition to magistrates, a merchant and a Cossack, there is a fourth figure - a priest - a fictional figure. Based on the record, "Ghazi Baradj Tarihi", known only as a part of the "Djagfar Tarihi", the authenticity of which raises serious doubts as researchers, and is mentioned in the sixth chapter on the basis of a certain strength Syurhot Baytuganom. It is concluded that the Bulgars Surgut was founded six centuries earlier - in the 940-970's, but the evidence of this was found. In the XVII century, the city was a place of political exile, the uprising of Stepan Razin were sent here . In the XIX century, the Decembrists lived VK Tiesenhausen and AI Shahir.

2. Origin of name

"... the whole area, where was built Russian city called Surgut. Where did the name come from? It is known that the city was established near the settlement of Khanty tribe, and kept it without a local name for the translation into Russian. From this we can assume that the word "Surgut" consists of two words from the ancient language of Ugra "rubbish" and "kut", which reached us in an altered form. Word "rubbish" is translated as "filler floodplain of the river", the word "kut "in Surgut dialect means" fish. "Therefore, in the compound word "sorkut" could mean the whole concept associated with the lifestyle of the people: the annual spring nomadic tribes of the taiga rivers and hunting grounds to understand Ob." Made no attempt to link "Surgut" to "sealing wax" supposedly originally designating the product of processing of honey - wax.

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Presumably the Turkic origin of the "wax" and the long presence of the Turkic peoples in all places where there are similar place names rather refute than to prove the names of Slavic origin.

3. The Fortress

Surgut was a small fortress with two gates at the end of the XVI century , four blind and single carriageway towers.

In 1596 built Seating yard. 

At the end of the XVI century - a small fortress. In the XVII-XVIII centuries - one of the centers of Russian development of Siberia. Strengthening constructed of sturdy wood, was situated on the Cape, so it was impossible for them to come quietly or from river or by land. The place of worship was located in the central area of the settlement. The entire perimeter of the fortress was surrounded by a moat, which was covered by structures of the defensive system. Outside the villages were special constructions- craft workshops, in particular, a smithy. For a nominal list of 1625 there lived 222 servitors of man. In the future, because there lived in 1635-200 people, 1642-199, then the high mortality of populations in Surgut gradually decreased. In 1627-216 people. During the second half of the XVII century the population fluctuated around 200 people , by the end of the century there were 185 inhabitants in Surgut.



4. Revolutionary times

We touch the life of the city and the revolutionary events of the early twentieth century. In April 1918 Soviet power was established in Surgut. In 1920, Surgut became the center of the uprising fists against the Bolsheviki. Soon after it the uprising was crushed by the Red Army. In September 1923 the city of Surgut lost its status and became a village. In the late 20s Surgut started a canning factory, as the first industrial plant in the city. Surgut, as the whole Siberia, did not know of serfdom. However, the city has long been a place of exile, the Decembrists were exiled here. Kolchak and the city experienced a peasant revolt.

5. The Great Patriotic War

During the Great Patriotic War, Surgut actively helped to defeat the enemy. Almost all adult males went to the front from here, half of them never returned home. Also during the war in Surgut was evacuated Odessa’s fish-canning factory (the only case of evacuation of the site at the Tyumen North). Industries served the needs of the front in food and coal industry of Kuzbass timber. Women sewed clothing and various military supplies. The city had worked weaving. All the wealth of the taiga region went to the defeat of Nazi Germany.

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   Known Veterans of Surgut

Polkov Leonid Ivanovich Klimov Yegor Semenovich Mishenkin Konstantin Ivanovich Aranov Jakov Egorovich Erashev Fedor Alexeevich and many others…………


6. At the present time

Surgutneftegaz produces more than 33 million tons of oil and nearly ten billion cubic meters of natural gas.

    And in 1997 in 

the fields the billionth was obtained - from the beginning of field development - a ton of Surgut oil. Today, Surgut is one of the major cultural and industrial centers of the Tyumen

region and Khanty-Mansiysk 

all (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District). Surgut - a strategically important center for oil and gas industry in the Russian Federation. In 2000 it was commissioned in cable-stayed bridge across the Ob River. Its length is 2110 meters and the span of 408 meters. It has a tower height of 149 meters and 130 of the guy attached to it. In the Tyumen region the Surgut bridge is recognized as one of seven local miracles. Earlier it was possible to be forwarded only on a zimnik or on the ferry in the summer over the Ob. And this is the fact that through


Surgut routes from Tomsk to Perm and from Tyumen to Salekhard lie. Surgut- administrative center of the Surgut district of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District, the largest city in the district, one of the few Russian regional cities that exceed the administrative center of the federation as a subject in terms of population and industrial potential. As the largest oil production center of the district, Surgut - unofficial "oil-producing capital" of Russia. Surgut can be proud of its museums. Local History is opened for over thirty years ago in the building, which is a historical monument and wooden architecture. The museum exposition presents the life and lifestyle of the indigenous population - the Khanty and Mansi, a chronicle of Surgut four centuries, the history of oil and gas development, tells us about the present day.

Museum staff has been active

in research work in the field 

of archeology, ethnography, history of the modern period.

The museum contains work
by Konstantin Korovin,
M. Sarian, Serov, 

L. Tourjansky, Ostroumov-Lebedev

and other masters.

In 2009, the city of Surgut took place on two indicators of socio-economic development of municipalities of the Khanty-Ugra in the industry "Physical Culture and Sports" and got the 3rd place for the performance indicators of the objects of sports among the district municipalities.


V.Conclusion

From all this we see that the establishment and development of the Russian state was held in very difficult conditions throughout the country, but also it can be concluded that Russia today - one of the great powers in the world. Russia - the largest country in the world, winner of the enormous wealth in the form of oil and other natural resources, and, finally, Russia has a large army and a significant nuclear arsenal. Our region plays an important role in the development of the country at present. West Siberian Plain - one of the richest oil regions all over the country. In our area there is the majority of transactions with foreign countries, significantly developing the economy of the Russian Federation.

             Since ancient times our homeland has experienced so much, yet our people have been able to prove that Russia was and will be one of the great powers in the world. 



VI.Quiz

“The birth of Russian statehood”

1. What did Oleg the Prophetic declare about Kiev when he sat on throne there?

2. When did Prince Vladimir of Kiev proclaim Christianity as the official religion?

3. Under whose ruling did the flowering of Kievan culture begin.

4. When did the Mongols conquer Rus?

5. Who is considered to be the founder of Moscow?


6. When was Moscow first mentioned?

7. What did Ivan the Great’s second marriage mean for Rus?


8. What is the Urals famous for?

9. When did Russians begin first advancing across the Urals?


10. What kind of natural resources are there in the Siberia?



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VII. Bibliography

1. Большой английский справочник, Баканова И.Ю., «Дрофа», 1998 г. 2. 1500 новых тем современного английского языка, Бережная О.А., Бао-Пресс Рипол Классик, 2006 г. 3. http://digital.library.edu 4. www.english.language.ru 5. http://www.earchedu.com

Отчизна Дон Кихотов-2010

Творческая работа "Kinder – Helden des Großen Vaterländischen Krieges" [2]

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